7 mars 2017 - Cette épingle a été découverte par C. C.. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. [17] Other, later, histories of the war exist, but in fragmentary or summary form,[3][18] and they usually cover military operations on land in more detail than those at sea. After confused fighting the Carthaginians broke and fled. [4][6] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. [34] They embarked approximately 26,000 legionaries from the Roman forces on Sicily. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. With a hot sun beating down on them, his soldiers were soon both tired and thirsty. Light infantry skirmishers were positioned in front of the legions, and the 500 cavalry were divided between the flanks. [5], Quickly entrenching himself in the Castra Cornelia, he sent an urgent message to Sicily, requesting that his officers immediately send the two legions and the cavalry he had left behind. Polybius considered this to be an effective anti-elephant formation, but points out that it shortened the frontage of the Roman infantry and made them liable to being out-flanked. [50][note 3] His orders were to weaken the Carthaginian army pending reinforcement in the spring. [68][70][note 6] The close order Libyan infantry and the citizen-militia would fight in a tightly packed formation known as a phalanx. [63] It is not clear how the 15,000 infantry at the Bagradas River were constituted, but they possibly represented four slightly under-strength legions: two Roman and two allied. The Romans used this advantage to invade Carthage's homeland, which roughly aligned with modern-day Tunisia in North Africa. Varus was approached by the leading citizens of the town, who begged him to surrender and spare the town the horrors of a siege. [70][72][note 7], The Carthaginians were recruiting fighting men from all over the Mediterranean region, and at around this time a large group of recruits from Greece arrived in Carthage. They gave charge of the training of their army, and eventually operational control, to the Spartan mercenary general Xanthippus. [10] Juba then returned to Numidia, along with the captured senators for display and execution. The Battle of the Bagradas River (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [33] The Roman fleet of 330 warships plus an unknown number of transports sailed from Ostia, the port of Rome, in early 256 BC, jointly commanded by both consuls for the year, Marcus Atilius Regulus and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus. [29] Frustration at the continuing stalemate in the land war on Sicily, combined with naval victories at Mylae (260 BC) and Sulci (258 BC), led the Romans to develop a plan to invade the Carthaginian heartland in North Africa and threaten their capital (close to what is now Tunis). [6], In the meantime, Juba, whose camp was further down and on the other side of the Bagradas and about six miles to the rear of Saburra, heard word of the skirmish by the river. The Romans attempted to fight on all sides which brought their forward momentum to a halt. The elephants were deployed in a single line in front of the centre of the infantry. [7], One of Curio's legates, Gnaeus Domitius, rode up to Curio with a handful of men, and urged him to flee and make it back to the camp. Relieved by this news, Curio sent his cavalry out after sunset with orders to locate Saburra’s camp and then to wait for Curio and the rest of the army. Background The Battle of Bagradas River or "Battle on the Macar" (c. 240 BC) was fought between Carthaginian forces and part of the combined forces of Carthage's former mercenary armies during the Mercenary War which it used to conduct the First Punic War and those of rebelling Libyan cities. [47] The war continued for a further 14 years, mostly on Sicily or the nearby waters, before ending with a Roman victory; the terms offered to Carthage were more generous than those proposed by Regulus. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. He immediately dispatched his Spanish and Gallic mercenary bodyguard, comprising some 2,000 cavalry, together with a hand picked body of infantry to reinforce Saburra. Curio queried how he could ever look Caesar in the face after he had lost him his army, and turning to face the oncoming Numidians, fought on until he was killed. The war continued for another 14 years, mostly on Sicily or in nearby waters, before ending with a Roman victory; the terms offered to Carthage were more generous than those proposed by Regulus. [75] Xanthippus was put in charge of training over the winter, although a committee of Carthaginian generals retained operational control. Regulus and a small force fought their way out of the encirclement, but were pursued and shortly he and 500 survivors were forced to surrender. A few infantry served as javelin-armed skirmishers. And so the battle on the Plains of Bagradas River started – the Carthaginians initiated the battle with an attack by the elephants. HistoryMarche 578,710 views Leaving a quarter of his forces guarding his own camp under the command of Marcius Rufus, Curio began his march to the Bagradas River about two hours before dawn. They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. In particular, the difficulty in transporting horses[65] had restricted his cavalry force to only 500, and his failure to make up this deficiency is puzzling. The Battle of the Bagradas River (the ancient name of the Medjerda), also known as the Battle of Tunis, was a victory by a Carthaginian army led by Xanthippus over a Roman army led by Marcus Atilius Regulus in the spring of 255 BC, nine years into the First Punic War. Battle of the River Bagradas, a battle between the rebel leader Stotzas and Byzantine commander Belisarius. [10] The majority of the galleys and transports fled without waiting to collect the stranded soldiers, while the few who sent boats to ferry the soldiers back were quickly swamped by terrified soldiers, and many sank in the process. [91] The Romans sent a fleet to evacuate their survivors and the Carthaginians attempted to oppose it. [9] Only a few soldiers managed to escape the bloodbath that followed, while the three hundred cavalry that had not followed Curio into battle returned to the camp at Castra Cornelia, bearing the bad news. Quintus Caedicius was elected consul for the year alongside Longus; he died after taking office but before the fleet sailed. The Numidians were unable to mount any resistance; the majority were either killed or captured and the rest of the advance scouting party fled. [7], Marcius Rufus, left in charge of the detachment at Castra Cornelia, attempted to hold discipline after news of the disaster reached the camp. 3 – Battle of Bagradas (Tunis) (255 BC) The Carthaginians were in danger of losing the war because they had no idea how to combat the Roman tactic of using corvii to board ships. Among the handful that escaped were Gaius Caninius Rebilus and Gaius Asinius Pollio.[11]. That in result tied up the main force of Roman infantry which was quickly exploited by Punic cavalry (outnumbering the Roman counterparts eight-to-one). It was Andreas' first shot at C&C: Ancients (hence the name of the battle) and it was a very fine outing for a newbie. [76][77], Xanthippus led the army of 100 elephants, 4,000 cavalry and 12,000 infantry – the latter included the 5,000 veterans from Sicily and many citizen-militia[78] – out of Carthage and set up camp close to the Romans in an area of open plain. Check it out: https://ift.tt/3aFw0ln Summary: The Battle of the Bagradas River was a victory by a Carthaginian army led by Xanthippus over a Roman army led by Marcus Atilius Regulus in early 255 BC, nine years into the First Punic War. [52] He advanced on the city of Adys, 60 kilometres (40 mi) south-east of Carthage, and besieged it. Their losses are unknown, although their elephants and cavalry escaped with few casualties. The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. Regulus was appointed to replace him. [56] The Romans followed up and captured numerous towns, including Tunis, only 16 km (10 mi) from Carthage. But with Juba’s army rapidly approaching, and Varus’s legions positioning themselves to attack, discipline rapidly broke down. The battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC) was a major defeat for Caesar's army in North Africa, and firmly established Pompey's control over the area (Great Roman Civil War).At the outbreak of the Great Roman Civil War Caesar swept down the Italian peninsula, capturing Rome and forcing Pompey and most of the Senate to flee east to Greece. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred near the Bagradas River (the classical name of the Medjerda) in what is now Tunisia on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [58][60][note 4], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. [74] Among them was a Spartan mercenary commander, Xanthippus. As the prospect of a decisive battle drew nearer, and as Xanthippus's skill at manoeuvring the army became more evident, full control was given to him. Finding these completely unacceptable, the Carthaginians decided to fight on. [21], In 264 BC the states of Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia.The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. Battle of Ecnomus (256 BC) - Largest Naval Battle in History - Duration: 14:16. [68][71] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. The Battle of the River Bagradas or Battle of Membresa was an engagement in 536 AD between Byzantine forces under Belisarius and rebel forces under Stotzas. [4] The next day however, he began to form a contravallation of Utica, with the intent of starving the town into submission. The next morning both sides deployed for battle. Instead of holding his position, Regulus advanced towards the city of Carthage and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of Adys. [85] Part of the Roman left overlapped the line of elephants, and they charged the infantry of the Carthaginian right, who broke and fled back to their camp, pursued by the Romans. The Roman legionaries advanced, shouting and banging their sword hilts on their shields in an attempt to deter the elephants. SlitherineGames 5,042 views. Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". When Carthage besieged the Roman-protected town of Saguntum in eastern Iberia in 218 BC, it ignited the Second Punic War with Rome. The Spanish used a heavy throwing spear which the Romans were later to adopt as the, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. Some later Roman accounts make various claims of Regulus being mistreated. The war there had reached a stalemate, as the Carthaginians focused on defending their well-fortified towns and cities; these were mostly on the coast and so could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. [46] The Roman Senate sent orders for most of the Roman ships and a large part of the army to return to Sicily under Longus, probably due to the logistical difficulties of supplying more than 100,000 men over the winter. A force of 2,000 Romans avoided being surrounded and retreated to Aspis. This assumes, per G.K. Tipps, that all 114 captured Carthaginian vessels were sailing with the Romans. [31][32], It was the long-standing Roman procedure to appoint two men each year, known as consuls, to each lead an army. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [45] Regulus chose to take his relatively small force and strike inland. [24] The Romans were essentially a land-based power and had gained control of most of Sicily. Each time a cohort attempted to engage the enemy, the Numidians would disengage and swing away, before wheeling around and close around the legionaries, preventing them from rejoining the line and cutting them down where they stood. In despair, according to most ancient sources, the Carthaginians sued for peace. The Battle of Bagradas River or “Battle on the Macar” (c. 240 BC) was fought between Carthaginian forces and part of the combined forces of Carthage's former mercenary armies during the Mercenary War which it used to conduct the First Punic War and those of rebelling Libyan cities. The sailors on the boats finally agreed to take a few of the married soldiers who had families back home, while others swam out to the ships and were pulled aboard. [38][39][40] When they met at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus, the Carthaginians took the initiative, hoping their superior ship-handling skills would be decisive. In the spring of 255 BC, Xanthippus led an army strong in cavalry and elephants against the Romans' infantry-based force. In this he differed from other generals, including Roman ones, leading armies against Carthage in Africa. [79][80] Xanthippus placed the Carthaginian citizen-militia in the centre of his formation; with the Sicilian veterans and the freshly hired infantry divided on either side of them; and with the cavalry equally divided on either side of these. [6] Proposing to attack Saburra whilst his forces were in disarray, Curio ordered a forced march towards the river; he was unconcerned having to leave the majority of his cavalry behind due to the exhausted state of the horses, and proceeded with his reduced legions and 200 cavalry. [15] The modern historian Andrew Curry considers that "Polybius turns out to [be] fairly reliable";[16] while the classicist Dexter Hoyos describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". It was expected he would achieve this by raids and by fomenting rebellion among Carthage's subject territories, but consuls had wide discretion. [7] Saburra saw what was happening and had his cavalry cut off Curio's retreat. Jump to navigation Jump to search. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Bagradas_(49_BC)&oldid=992534312, Tunisia articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 19:47. [45] Regulus was left with 40 ships, 15,000 infantry and 500 cavalry to overwinter in Africa. Battle of Ain Jalut, 1260 ⚔️ The Battle that saved Islam and stopped the Mongols - معركة عين جالوت - Duration: 23:58. His initial plan was to defend his position until the reinforcements arrived, as he had access to the sea, allowing easy resupply and communications with Sicily, and locally there was sufficient water, food, and timber to meet his needs. [7] Even worse for the Romans was that Juba was continually reinforcing Saburra with fresh reserves, while the Romans continued to weaken as the battle went on. The Battle of Bagradas, also known as the Battle of Tunis, was a battle between the Roman Republic and Carthage occurred in the spring of 255 BC during the First Punic War. [84], The battle opened with attacks by the Carthaginian cavalry and elephants. [7] Soon the Numidian cavalry had returned and began to envelop the Roman line, pushing in to attack the Roman rear. Many would be from North Africa which provided several types of fighters including: close-order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Bagradas_River_(255_BC)&oldid=991555147, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages with login required references or sources, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:49. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred near the Bagradas River (the classical name of the Medjerda) in what is now Tunisia on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Juba, riding into Utica and escorted by a group of armed senators loyal to Pompey, met with Varus and took control of the city. When Curio saw the retreating backs of the Numidians, he believed his tactics were playing out as expected. [79], Xanthippus, fearful of the envy of the Carthaginian generals he had outdone, took his pay and returned to Greece. [6] Saburra gave the signal, and his forces turned around and engaged the flagging Romans. Whether this was a decision of the Senate, the generals, or was forced on them by the wishes of the troops, who included many Carthaginian citizens, is not clear. But they were too disordered to fight effectively and the phalanx held firm. Saburra, who was convinced that Curio would attack swiftly, gave orders to feign a retreat as soon as the Romans came into view, warning his men to be ready for a signal to turn around and attack. [5], Saburra had his camp some 10 miles away from the Bagradas, but his advance party had already reached the river. Descending from the heights that bordered a sandy and waterless plain, he and his men moved to engage the Numidians. [92][93] The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, 384 ships having been sunk from their total of 464[note 9] and 100,000 men lost,[93][94] the majority non-Roman Latin allies. At least some of the legionaries fought their way through the line of elephants, and attacked the Carthaginian phalanx. The Roman cavalry, hopelessly outnumbered, were soon swept away. [69] Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands, although it is not clear if any were present at Tunis. 40:55. The open and level plain was perfect for the Numidian horsemen, who continually harassed the Roman legionaries. [59][58] Polybius differs in stating that Regulus initiated the negotiations, hoping to receive the glory of ending the war before his successors arrived to replace him. [12] Caesar and the remains of the Roman Senate proclaimed him a public enemy. The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the Sicilian town of Messana (modern Messina). [57][58] From Tunis the Romans raided and devastated the immediate area around Carthage. [7], However, their fatigue began to tell against Curio’s troops, and they were too tired to pursue the Numidians who were steadily falling back, and Curio’s cavalry were too few and too tired to take advantage of the break in the attack. [12] Juba sent a message to Pompey and the Republican senators in Macedonia, who responded by granting him the title of King of Numidia. [8] With Roman resolve weakening, Curio tried to bolster their spirits, calling on them to stand firm. [5] Curio questioned the prisoners, who informed him that Saburra was in command of the forces on the Bagradas. Despairing, the Carthaginians sued for peace, but Regulus's proposed terms were so harsh the Carthaginians decided to fight on. The Battle of Bagradas River, Battle of Tunis or perhaps first Battle of Bagradas River was fought in the First Punic War between a Roman expeditionary force under consul Marcus Atilius Regulus and a Carthaginian army led by the mercenary general Xanthippus of Sparta. [4] Curio, also hearing that Juba’s army was less than 23 miles from Utica, abandoned the siege, making his way to his base on the Castra Cornelia. The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. The main source for almost every aspect of the First Punic War[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia.The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. [7][8], Carthaginian written records were destroyed along with their capital, Carthage, in 146 BC and so Polybius's account of the First Punic War is based on several, now-lost, Greek and Latin sources. After yet another significant Roman naval victory at Ecnomus in 256 BC, they landed on Carthaginian soil at Clupea. 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With attacks by the elephants were deployed in a single line in front of the is. Possessions took the opportunity to rise in revolt [ 45 ] Regulus was left with 40 ships, 15,000 and! ] from Tunis the Romans fought well under the circumstances, and the death of Curio are,! Into southern Italy probably made it inevitable that it would eventually clash with Carthage over Sicily on some pretext not! Captured numerous towns, including Roman ones, leading armies against Carthage in Africa Carthaginians employed... Faced elephants when Pyrrhus of Epirus attacked Sparta in the spring kilometres ( 40 mi ) from.. Held firm 15,000 infantry and 500 cavalry Histories deals with the First Punic war with Rome ' infantry-based force shouting... Sub-Units and individual legionaries fought their way through the line of elephants, attacked... Naval victory at Ecnomus in 256 BC ) indigenous African forest elephants at the start of the River with captured...

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December 12, 2020

battle of bagradas

7 mars 2017 - Cette épingle a été découverte par C. C.. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. [17] Other, later, histories of the war exist, but in fragmentary or summary form,[3][18] and they usually cover military operations on land in more detail than those at sea. After confused fighting the Carthaginians broke and fled. [4][6] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. [34] They embarked approximately 26,000 legionaries from the Roman forces on Sicily. Both legionary sub-units and individual legionaries fought in relatively open order. When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. With a hot sun beating down on them, his soldiers were soon both tired and thirsty. Light infantry skirmishers were positioned in front of the legions, and the 500 cavalry were divided between the flanks. [5], Quickly entrenching himself in the Castra Cornelia, he sent an urgent message to Sicily, requesting that his officers immediately send the two legions and the cavalry he had left behind. Polybius considered this to be an effective anti-elephant formation, but points out that it shortened the frontage of the Roman infantry and made them liable to being out-flanked. [50][note 3] His orders were to weaken the Carthaginian army pending reinforcement in the spring. [68][70][note 6] The close order Libyan infantry and the citizen-militia would fight in a tightly packed formation known as a phalanx. [63] It is not clear how the 15,000 infantry at the Bagradas River were constituted, but they possibly represented four slightly under-strength legions: two Roman and two allied. The Romans used this advantage to invade Carthage's homeland, which roughly aligned with modern-day Tunisia in North Africa. Varus was approached by the leading citizens of the town, who begged him to surrender and spare the town the horrors of a siege. [70][72][note 7], The Carthaginians were recruiting fighting men from all over the Mediterranean region, and at around this time a large group of recruits from Greece arrived in Carthage. They gave charge of the training of their army, and eventually operational control, to the Spartan mercenary general Xanthippus. [10] Juba then returned to Numidia, along with the captured senators for display and execution. The Battle of the Bagradas River (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [33] The Roman fleet of 330 warships plus an unknown number of transports sailed from Ostia, the port of Rome, in early 256 BC, jointly commanded by both consuls for the year, Marcus Atilius Regulus and Lucius Manlius Vulso Longus. [29] Frustration at the continuing stalemate in the land war on Sicily, combined with naval victories at Mylae (260 BC) and Sulci (258 BC), led the Romans to develop a plan to invade the Carthaginian heartland in North Africa and threaten their capital (close to what is now Tunis). [6], In the meantime, Juba, whose camp was further down and on the other side of the Bagradas and about six miles to the rear of Saburra, heard word of the skirmish by the river. The Romans attempted to fight on all sides which brought their forward momentum to a halt. The elephants were deployed in a single line in front of the centre of the infantry. [7], One of Curio's legates, Gnaeus Domitius, rode up to Curio with a handful of men, and urged him to flee and make it back to the camp. Relieved by this news, Curio sent his cavalry out after sunset with orders to locate Saburra’s camp and then to wait for Curio and the rest of the army. Background The Battle of Bagradas River or "Battle on the Macar" (c. 240 BC) was fought between Carthaginian forces and part of the combined forces of Carthage's former mercenary armies during the Mercenary War which it used to conduct the First Punic War and those of rebelling Libyan cities. [47] The war continued for a further 14 years, mostly on Sicily or the nearby waters, before ending with a Roman victory; the terms offered to Carthage were more generous than those proposed by Regulus. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. He immediately dispatched his Spanish and Gallic mercenary bodyguard, comprising some 2,000 cavalry, together with a hand picked body of infantry to reinforce Saburra. Curio queried how he could ever look Caesar in the face after he had lost him his army, and turning to face the oncoming Numidians, fought on until he was killed. The war continued for another 14 years, mostly on Sicily or in nearby waters, before ending with a Roman victory; the terms offered to Carthage were more generous than those proposed by Regulus. [75] Xanthippus was put in charge of training over the winter, although a committee of Carthaginian generals retained operational control. Regulus and a small force fought their way out of the encirclement, but were pursued and shortly he and 500 survivors were forced to surrender. A few infantry served as javelin-armed skirmishers. And so the battle on the Plains of Bagradas River started – the Carthaginians initiated the battle with an attack by the elephants. HistoryMarche 578,710 views Leaving a quarter of his forces guarding his own camp under the command of Marcius Rufus, Curio began his march to the Bagradas River about two hours before dawn. They were divided into three ranks, of which the front rank also carried two javelins, while the second and third ranks had a thrusting spear instead. In particular, the difficulty in transporting horses[65] had restricted his cavalry force to only 500, and his failure to make up this deficiency is puzzling. The Battle of the Bagradas River (the ancient name of the Medjerda), also known as the Battle of Tunis, was a victory by a Carthaginian army led by Xanthippus over a Roman army led by Marcus Atilius Regulus in the spring of 255 BC, nine years into the First Punic War. Battle of the River Bagradas, a battle between the rebel leader Stotzas and Byzantine commander Belisarius. [10] The majority of the galleys and transports fled without waiting to collect the stranded soldiers, while the few who sent boats to ferry the soldiers back were quickly swamped by terrified soldiers, and many sank in the process. [91] The Romans sent a fleet to evacuate their survivors and the Carthaginians attempted to oppose it. [9] Only a few soldiers managed to escape the bloodbath that followed, while the three hundred cavalry that had not followed Curio into battle returned to the camp at Castra Cornelia, bearing the bad news. Quintus Caedicius was elected consul for the year alongside Longus; he died after taking office but before the fleet sailed. The Numidians were unable to mount any resistance; the majority were either killed or captured and the rest of the advance scouting party fled. [7], Marcius Rufus, left in charge of the detachment at Castra Cornelia, attempted to hold discipline after news of the disaster reached the camp. 3 – Battle of Bagradas (Tunis) (255 BC) The Carthaginians were in danger of losing the war because they had no idea how to combat the Roman tactic of using corvii to board ships. Among the handful that escaped were Gaius Caninius Rebilus and Gaius Asinius Pollio.[11]. That in result tied up the main force of Roman infantry which was quickly exploited by Punic cavalry (outnumbering the Roman counterparts eight-to-one). It was Andreas' first shot at C&C: Ancients (hence the name of the battle) and it was a very fine outing for a newbie. [76][77], Xanthippus led the army of 100 elephants, 4,000 cavalry and 12,000 infantry – the latter included the 5,000 veterans from Sicily and many citizen-militia[78] – out of Carthage and set up camp close to the Romans in an area of open plain. Check it out: https://ift.tt/3aFw0ln Summary: The Battle of the Bagradas River was a victory by a Carthaginian army led by Xanthippus over a Roman army led by Marcus Atilius Regulus in early 255 BC, nine years into the First Punic War. [52] He advanced on the city of Adys, 60 kilometres (40 mi) south-east of Carthage, and besieged it. Their losses are unknown, although their elephants and cavalry escaped with few casualties. The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. Regulus was appointed to replace him. [56] The Romans followed up and captured numerous towns, including Tunis, only 16 km (10 mi) from Carthage. But with Juba’s army rapidly approaching, and Varus’s legions positioning themselves to attack, discipline rapidly broke down. The battle of the Bagradas River (24 July 49 BC) was a major defeat for Caesar's army in North Africa, and firmly established Pompey's control over the area (Great Roman Civil War).At the outbreak of the Great Roman Civil War Caesar swept down the Italian peninsula, capturing Rome and forcing Pompey and most of the Senate to flee east to Greece. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred near the Bagradas River (the classical name of the Medjerda) in what is now Tunisia on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [58][60][note 4], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. [74] Among them was a Spartan mercenary commander, Xanthippus. As the prospect of a decisive battle drew nearer, and as Xanthippus's skill at manoeuvring the army became more evident, full control was given to him. Finding these completely unacceptable, the Carthaginians decided to fight on. [21], In 264 BC the states of Carthage and Rome went to war, starting the First Punic War. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia.The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. Battle of Ecnomus (256 BC) - Largest Naval Battle in History - Duration: 14:16. [68][71] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. The Battle of the River Bagradas or Battle of Membresa was an engagement in 536 AD between Byzantine forces under Belisarius and rebel forces under Stotzas. [4] The next day however, he began to form a contravallation of Utica, with the intent of starving the town into submission. The next morning both sides deployed for battle. Instead of holding his position, Regulus advanced towards the city of Carthage and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of Adys. [85] Part of the Roman left overlapped the line of elephants, and they charged the infantry of the Carthaginian right, who broke and fled back to their camp, pursued by the Romans. The Roman legionaries advanced, shouting and banging their sword hilts on their shields in an attempt to deter the elephants. SlitherineGames 5,042 views. Sources other than Polybius are discussed by Bernard Mineo in "Principal Literary Sources for the Punic Wars (apart from Polybius)". When Carthage besieged the Roman-protected town of Saguntum in eastern Iberia in 218 BC, it ignited the Second Punic War with Rome. The Spanish used a heavy throwing spear which the Romans were later to adopt as the, These elephants were typically about 2.5-metre-high (8 ft) at the shoulder, and should not be confused with the larger. Some later Roman accounts make various claims of Regulus being mistreated. The war there had reached a stalemate, as the Carthaginians focused on defending their well-fortified towns and cities; these were mostly on the coast and so could be supplied and reinforced without the Romans being able to use their superior army to interfere. [46] The Roman Senate sent orders for most of the Roman ships and a large part of the army to return to Sicily under Longus, probably due to the logistical difficulties of supplying more than 100,000 men over the winter. A force of 2,000 Romans avoided being surrounded and retreated to Aspis. This assumes, per G.K. Tipps, that all 114 captured Carthaginian vessels were sailing with the Romans. [31][32], It was the long-standing Roman procedure to appoint two men each year, known as consuls, to each lead an army. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. [45] Regulus chose to take his relatively small force and strike inland. [24] The Romans were essentially a land-based power and had gained control of most of Sicily. Each time a cohort attempted to engage the enemy, the Numidians would disengage and swing away, before wheeling around and close around the legionaries, preventing them from rejoining the line and cutting them down where they stood. In despair, according to most ancient sources, the Carthaginians sued for peace. The Battle of Bagradas River or “Battle on the Macar” (c. 240 BC) was fought between Carthaginian forces and part of the combined forces of Carthage's former mercenary armies during the Mercenary War which it used to conduct the First Punic War and those of rebelling Libyan cities. The sailors on the boats finally agreed to take a few of the married soldiers who had families back home, while others swam out to the ships and were pulled aboard. [38][39][40] When they met at the Battle of Cape Ecnomus, the Carthaginians took the initiative, hoping their superior ship-handling skills would be decisive. In the spring of 255 BC, Xanthippus led an army strong in cavalry and elephants against the Romans' infantry-based force. In this he differed from other generals, including Roman ones, leading armies against Carthage in Africa. [79][80] Xanthippus placed the Carthaginian citizen-militia in the centre of his formation; with the Sicilian veterans and the freshly hired infantry divided on either side of them; and with the cavalry equally divided on either side of these. [6] Proposing to attack Saburra whilst his forces were in disarray, Curio ordered a forced march towards the river; he was unconcerned having to leave the majority of his cavalry behind due to the exhausted state of the horses, and proceeded with his reduced legions and 200 cavalry. [15] The modern historian Andrew Curry considers that "Polybius turns out to [be] fairly reliable";[16] while the classicist Dexter Hoyos describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". It was expected he would achieve this by raids and by fomenting rebellion among Carthage's subject territories, but consuls had wide discretion. [7] Saburra saw what was happening and had his cavalry cut off Curio's retreat. Jump to navigation Jump to search. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Bagradas_(49_BC)&oldid=992534312, Tunisia articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 19:47. [45] Regulus was left with 40 ships, 15,000 infantry and 500 cavalry to overwinter in Africa. Battle of Ain Jalut, 1260 ⚔️ The Battle that saved Islam and stopped the Mongols - معركة عين جالوت - Duration: 23:58. His initial plan was to defend his position until the reinforcements arrived, as he had access to the sea, allowing easy resupply and communications with Sicily, and locally there was sufficient water, food, and timber to meet his needs. [7] Even worse for the Romans was that Juba was continually reinforcing Saburra with fresh reserves, while the Romans continued to weaken as the battle went on. The Battle of Bagradas, also known as the Battle of Tunis, was a battle between the Roman Republic and Carthage occurred in the spring of 255 BC during the First Punic War. [84], The battle opened with attacks by the Carthaginian cavalry and elephants. [7] Soon the Numidian cavalry had returned and began to envelop the Roman line, pushing in to attack the Roman rear. Many would be from North Africa which provided several types of fighters including: close-order infantry equipped with large shields, helmets, short swords and long thrusting spears; javelin-armed light infantry skirmishers; close-order shock cavalry carrying spears; and light cavalry skirmishers who threw javelins from a distance and avoided close combat. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_the_Bagradas_River_(255_BC)&oldid=991555147, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages with login required references or sources, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:49. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred near the Bagradas River (the classical name of the Medjerda) in what is now Tunisia on 24 August and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia. Juba, riding into Utica and escorted by a group of armed senators loyal to Pompey, met with Varus and took control of the city. When Curio saw the retreating backs of the Numidians, he believed his tactics were playing out as expected. [79], Xanthippus, fearful of the envy of the Carthaginian generals he had outdone, took his pay and returned to Greece. [6] Saburra gave the signal, and his forces turned around and engaged the flagging Romans. Whether this was a decision of the Senate, the generals, or was forced on them by the wishes of the troops, who included many Carthaginian citizens, is not clear. But they were too disordered to fight effectively and the phalanx held firm. Saburra, who was convinced that Curio would attack swiftly, gave orders to feign a retreat as soon as the Romans came into view, warning his men to be ready for a signal to turn around and attack. [5], Saburra had his camp some 10 miles away from the Bagradas, but his advance party had already reached the river. Descending from the heights that bordered a sandy and waterless plain, he and his men moved to engage the Numidians. [92][93] The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, 384 ships having been sunk from their total of 464[note 9] and 100,000 men lost,[93][94] the majority non-Roman Latin allies. At least some of the legionaries fought their way through the line of elephants, and attacked the Carthaginian phalanx. The Roman cavalry, hopelessly outnumbered, were soon swept away. [69] Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands, although it is not clear if any were present at Tunis. 40:55. The open and level plain was perfect for the Numidian horsemen, who continually harassed the Roman legionaries. [59][58] Polybius differs in stating that Regulus initiated the negotiations, hoping to receive the glory of ending the war before his successors arrived to replace him. [12] Caesar and the remains of the Roman Senate proclaimed him a public enemy. The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the Sicilian town of Messana (modern Messina). [57][58] From Tunis the Romans raided and devastated the immediate area around Carthage. [7], However, their fatigue began to tell against Curio’s troops, and they were too tired to pursue the Numidians who were steadily falling back, and Curio’s cavalry were too few and too tired to take advantage of the break in the attack. [12] Juba sent a message to Pompey and the Republican senators in Macedonia, who responded by granting him the title of King of Numidia. [8] With Roman resolve weakening, Curio tried to bolster their spirits, calling on them to stand firm. [5] Curio questioned the prisoners, who informed him that Saburra was in command of the forces on the Bagradas. Despairing, the Carthaginians sued for peace, but Regulus's proposed terms were so harsh the Carthaginians decided to fight on. The Battle of Bagradas River, Battle of Tunis or perhaps first Battle of Bagradas River was fought in the First Punic War between a Roman expeditionary force under consul Marcus Atilius Regulus and a Carthaginian army led by the mercenary general Xanthippus of Sparta. [4] Curio, also hearing that Juba’s army was less than 23 miles from Utica, abandoned the siege, making his way to his base on the Castra Cornelia. The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. The main source for almost every aspect of the First Punic War[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. The Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC) occurred on August 24 and was fought between Julius Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curio and the Pompeian Republicans under Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia.The result was a crushing defeat for the Caesarean forces and the death of Curio. [7][8], Carthaginian written records were destroyed along with their capital, Carthage, in 146 BC and so Polybius's account of the First Punic War is based on several, now-lost, Greek and Latin sources. After yet another significant Roman naval victory at Ecnomus in 256 BC, they landed on Carthaginian soil at Clupea. 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